Quantum Dots And its Applications

Quantum Dots And its Applications

Quantum dots are zero-dimensional Particles that emit different wavelengths of light when exposed to light or radiation

Quantum Dots Explained

Before understanding Quantum dots let's understand Nanoparticles. We see particles Everywhere in our day to day like dust particles, water particles, smoke particles, etc, Nanoparticles are particles whose size is on a Nanoscale or 10^-9 which is extremely small. They are so small that the wavelength of Light is also Bigger than their size.

Quantum Dots are also Nanoparticles that are also in the range of the Nanoscale. But the thing which makes them interesting is that When Light of radiation falls on them they emit electrons which can be seen as visible light in many diff colors. So how does this process actually work? let's see.

Quantum Dots are part of Semi-Conductors. Which are not as good conductors of electricity as conductors. They have an electron in their valence band and when some radiation of light falls on the electron due to excitation the electron jumps to the higher shell which is a conduction band. But as it is a higher energy level it cannot stay for a longer time and hence returns to the original shell. But it has to emit the energy which it has taken while exciting. But this time it emits radiation in the form of light while again returning to the valence band. So the color of the emitted light depends on the difference between the valence band and the conduction band.

Quantum dots are also known as Artificial Molecules And also are Zero dimension particles. They pose hybridization even at room temperatures. Quantum dots are completely semiconductors or completely atoms they are in the middle of both of them.

Quantum Dots And Their Applications

  • Replacing Light Emitting devices (LED) 
LED's are used tremendously in our daily life from T.V to smartphones and many more. They are used to represent different light emissions for the display. But the point to be known here is that LED doesn't provide accurate lights sometimes they might not be clear. 
QD's can convert energy completely into the light so the output light is also clear and accurate. Whereas LEDs many waste energy while converting into different wavelengths of light. We can also achieve various ranges of colors by QD's depending upon the energy gap whereas we have to tune the colors in leds. Many T.V makers or display makers are finding ways for the proper use of quantum dots in their displays. But till now there is no Proper Device We have only proved the quantum dots display in labs.

  • Photo Conductors or Photodetectors 
Photo Detectors are used in many devices like light-dependent devices or light-dependent diodes etc.
QD's are perfect for this application. Which can make quantum dots as photodetectors. They can detect very accurately than other detectors. they can also emit diff lights based upon the light which falls on them. Photodetectors that are used now are made of heavy metals which are hard to make and hard to handle. It also doesn't have much life. quantum dots being reliable have a long life doesn't require any maintenance

  • Medical Applications
Difference Medical equipment which uses Light as its main source can be replaced by quantum dots. QD's are high luminescence, less toxic which makes them perfect for this kind of use. all the diagnostics, for example, bio-sensing bio-imaging can be done by QD's which are now done by heavy metals like Zinc, Manganese, mercury, etc. which are costly and can be toxic to humans. QD's whereas are cost-effective and less toxic and very efficient and accurate.
And also Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Have created a needle that can track vaccination history directly from the skin using Quantum dots. it creates new ways of bio-storage. Test on rats are successful for polio vaccine

  • Catalyst or Catalysis
Semiconductors are used as photocatalyst which converts light to chemical energy. QD's can also provide catalysis which has to be explored using graphene and cd's we can catalyst which can work efficiently 

By all this, we can say there is a lot of things which have to explore about Quantum dots and other Nanoparticles. As we are finding new things It reduces our day to day effects and helps in different sectors which can lead to technology improvement and reaching newer heights.

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